Vatican City State is a sovereign city-state that belongs to the Holy See (Sancta Sedes). Vatican City is located within a walled enclave in Rome Italy. The Vatican was founded on February 11th 1929, by the signing of the Lateran Treaties between the state of Italy and the Holy See. Vatican City is located beyond the right bank of the Tiber River, its on part of the ancient Montes Vaticani (the Vatican Mount) - where the Vatican Fields used to be .The Name "Vatican" comes from the name of the hill. The Vatican was put within walls by Pope Leo IV (847–55), and later on fortified further by Popes Paul III , Pius IV and Urban VIII. It is believed that St. Peter founded the See of Rome and is officially considered the first Bishop of Rome, which is the official position of the Pope.
The Vatican has a population of less than 1000 and is approximately 0.44 square kilometers, (about 110 acres).Vatican City is the smallest state in the world with its own national Anthem, Flag post office and even special coins (the currencyused today is the Euro). Vatican City has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1984.
The Vatican has been the residence of the Pope since 1337. The Pope's residence is also known as the Apostolic Palace and it is located North-East of the St. Peter's basilica. The Pontifical Swiss Guard is in charge of the security of the Vatican and the Pope's personal safety and they have fulfilled this duty since the 16th century
The main tourist attractions in the Vatican are: The Vatican Museums, which includes the Sistine Chapel, St. Peter's basilica - where St. Peter the apostle is buried, St. Peter's Square and the Vatican gardens.